Coronary anatomy, anatomic variations and anomalies: a retrospective coronary angiography study

Cihan Altin, Suleyman Kanyilmaz, Sahbender Koc, Yusuf Cemil Gursoy, Uğur Bal, Alp Aydinalp, Aylin Yildirir, Haldun Muderrisoglu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

18 Citations (Scopus)


INTRODUCTION: The incidence of coronary artery anomalies (CAAs) varies from 0.2% to 8.4%. Knowledge of such anatomical variations is important as coronary procedures are regularly performed these days. We aimed to find the coronary dominance pattern, intermediate artery (IMA) frequency and CAA incidence in our clinic, and compare them to those in the literature.

METHODS: The medical reports of 5,548 patients who had undergone coronary angiography (CAG) between 2005 and 2009 were retrospectively investigated. Dominance pattern and presence of IMA and CAA were recorded. CAAs were described using two different classifications: Angelini and Khatami's classification, and a new modified classification that was derived from Angelini and Khatami's classification. Some procedural details and clinical features of the patients with CAA were also investigated.

RESULTS: Coronary dominance pattern was: 81.6% right coronary artery, 12.2% circumflex artery and 6.2% co-dominant. IMA was present in 613 (11.0%) patients. The incidences of overall anomaly were 2.7% and 1.4%, according to the different classifications. Absent left main coronary artery, which was the most common anomaly in the present study, was found in 51 (0.9%) patients. Incidences of myocardial bridge, coronary arteriovenous fistulae and aneurysms were 1.1%, 0.2% and 0.3%, respectively.

CONCLUSION: CAAs are generally asymptomatic, isolated lesions. Some may lead to anginal symptoms, myocardial infarction or sudden death. We found that CAA was associated with increased radiation and contrast exposure in patients who underwent CAG. This risk could be reduced if appropriate catheters were designed and training programmes on ostial cannulation were developed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)339-345
Number of pages7
JournalSingapore Medical Journal
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 1 2015


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Altin, C., Kanyilmaz, S., Koc, S., Gursoy, Y. C., Bal, U., Aydinalp, A., Yildirir, A., & Muderrisoglu, H. (2015). Coronary anatomy, anatomic variations and anomalies: a retrospective coronary angiography study. Singapore Medical Journal, 56(6), 339-345.